The Ancient Trees Heritage of Borai ~ Arya Warsha

Trees are very important, that we all know. They are important because of many reasons, i.e. shade, fruits, feed for animals, fixing atmospheric carbon & producing oxygen, fixing land, purifying/halting winds, providing habitats to insects, birds, reptiles and other animals, scenic attraction, herbal value, building material and anymore.

Old Trees Heritage
Trees are very important from many angles. Fixing atmospheric carbon, producing oxygen, provision of shadow, producing fruits/fodders for human and animals both can be the few characteristics of the tree but there are many more apparent and hidden purposes of the trees.

Borai is an ancient traditional grazing and farming land, an offshoot of the historical Arya Warsha (the grazing lands). http://livestockscience.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/00_slutversion_after_revision_av_Raigi_camel_till_J_Livestock_science.pdf

The trees are a precious heritage and social treasures. We have great affection with the trees, especially the ancient trees. Our elders were used to sit under these trees making Jirga (Pashtun traditional jury) and other social event. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jirga

Trees are the fixed tents of the people to sit under and take refuge from scorching sunshine and rains. This tree is an old mulberry tree. Once, our village people were used to feed the mulberry leaves to the silkworms. I remember that golden time.

This is an ancient tree, Mulberry. The trees is almost 300 years. The elders people told that the tree is always harmed by thunder storms, which burns the trunk. The tree is hard and resilient.
An ancient mulberry tree (Thooth) in Borai. This tree is at the bank of Zingiwall Karez in Uryagi moza.

Go Home Message

Trees are the sign of life and health of mother earth. Unfortunately the human activities are adversely affecting the health of the mother earth. These trees are at the bank of the Karez (traditional water channel), which are drying because of the over exploitation/mining of the water and the overall climate change calamities. We need to save these trees. I met to the many owners/community of the trees to aware them about the importance and to think about the ways to conserve. They are earth loving people and they are ready to save each ancient tree.

Khurasani or Khorasani Goat Breed

Khorasani or Khurasani goat is one of the most important goat genetics of the historical Arya Warsha

Khurasani goat is one of the most important breeds of the historical land of Arya Warsha. This breed of goat is well adapted to the climatic conditions of the region and support the food security with its specialized milk and meat. The goat keepers make Kurath from the milk when it is abundantly available in favorable season.

Khorasani/Khurasani goat being reared by some families for milk. Photo credit: Ellen Geerlings

Habitat

The historic lands of Khurasan/Khorasan (now in Pak and Afghanistan), Toba Kakar range, Suleiman mountains region of Zhob and Sherani districts, Killa Saifullah, Loralai, Ziarat, Chaghai and Pishin districts are the main niche of the breed. This habitat is the famous and historical land of ARYA WARSHA. The breed is equally raised by nomadic, semi-nomadic, agro-pastoral tribes of Pashtoon people. The Baloch tribes of Chaghai-Kharan desert also raise this breed. The nomads with Khurasani breed move from Khurasan in autumn and may reach to Indus delta and some tribes reach to Chaghai-Kharan desert. The breed is trans-boundary. This breed is mainly a nomadic breed.

This photo was shot in Loralai, a goat grazer is milking Khurasani goat for making tea.

Phenotypic characteristics

The phenotypic characteristics of the Khurasani breed are black long hair coat, turned back horns and fine second hair coat in winter. The breed is predominantly black in color with a red face but some other color is also found occasionally. The males have beard also.

Vegetation of the Region

Acacia modesta, Caragana ambigua, Bararr, Gurgulla, Sarwane, Showan, Wanna, Barrai, Ghalmi, Shorai, Lani, Azghai, Sassi, Ghaz, Korai, Sperbutai, Oma, Murgha, Tarkha and Zizyphus.

Population of Khorasani Goat

The population of the goat is hard to predict, because of the widely scattered and mobile nature of the Khorasani goat as it is reared both by the transshipmentry and nomadic people. . It is estimated about 2.7 million. The trend is increasing.

The goat produce Pashmina in winter. Some NGOs are helping people to comb and harvest the pashmina. Photo credit: Ellen Geerlings

Special traits

  • The animal of this breed is highly intelligent, making it safe
  • The Khorasani goat is loving to her soul and take care of herself, can find vegetation and water
  • Always lead other livestock towards water and vegetation
  • Close to wild ancestors and highly resistant to diseases
  • Can travel long
They have great diversity among the breed. Khurasani breed of goat. Photo credit: Ellen Geerlings

Hope options

Goat is a more effective tool against drought as the breed can better thrive on the drought and climate resilient vegetation (bushes and shrubs) of the region.

Economic importance

The male animals are the major source of earning. The animal is smaller in size and cannot attain as higher prices as Kohe-Suleimani goat. Moreover, it is good in milk production, and milk is used for by-products like ghee and Kurath. The goat also produces pashmina, but the importance of pashmina is not yet being realized. The hair is used for making ropes and tents.