Why native flora diversity is better than monoculture forest for replantation

My point of view

I always emphasized to please plant the native flora for replantation, and reforestation. Even, in the cities, parks, lawns, schools, hospitals, and universities. It will give a positive impact on the environment and nature. It will provide better habitat to the local or native biodiversity such as; birds, bugs, insects, lizards, herbivores, and others. https://arkbiodiv.com/2022/01/23/native-shrubs-are-the-best-for-the-municipal-and-homes-beautifications/amp/

Beautiful Emirates' Tree
Wherever you walk in the desert, you will see and meet the beautiful wooden flora, Prosopis. These trees act as a source of landmarks and help as GPS for livestock and wild animals.

I’m a desert, rangelands, and livestock ecologist, always promoting the idea to develop the grazing lands with native biodiversity. In the meanwhile, I suggested many times to use native flora for plantation even in the parks, lawns, and other places as I mentioned above. Here is an example of the Morning Glory (Convolvulus cephalopods) which can give beauty at very low costs as it is resistant to drought and pestshttps://arkbiodiv.com/2022/03/03/the-beautiful-morning-glory-convolvulus-cephalopods-in-the-desert-of-alain-uae/amp/.

This is a very good article that supports my opinion

With the title as; “Managing forests for competing goals” the Science magazine published an article based on the findings of Feng et al. Feng et al. synthesized a dataset from several hundred publications across six continents to determine whether multispecies planting had advantages over monocultures in productivity. They found that growth and productivity were substantially greater when multiple tree species were grown together compared with monocultures, echoing findings in natural systems of positive relationships between productivity and plant biodiversity. They attribute their results to niche complementarity when different plant forms—such as deciduous and needle-leafed trees—are grown together. Collectively, the studies by Hua et al. and Feng et al. suggest that more complex, multispecies plantations may offer the promise of higher productivity while at least in part supporting biodiversity and providing ecosystem services. Replacing native forests with plantations, even multispecies plantations, cannot fully restore biodiversity, but well-designed forest restorations may support important ecological and conservation goals while providing economic value. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abp8463

Native sheep breed of Balochistan Pakistan
Native livestock breeds are highly resilient and sustain their productivity in limited resources

I have been documenting, analyzing, and reporting the worth of native flora in the context of biodiversity, food (for us and livestock), environmental support, and another aspect of goodness. Here is the link to my general article about the goodness of trees and other flora.

I’m giving a field presence in a video about the possible use of Haloxyllon sp for hedging in the parks, lawns, and beautification places. I’m also continuously writing on Twitter for the goodness of our Mother Earth and huminity.

Arabian Boxthorn (Lycium shawii), AWSAJ in Arabic

Before, I wrote as ‘Please help me in the identification of this climber shrub’ but I knew the answer. Thanks to my friend Saharan Shephard who replied to my query and provided the name with some details.

The shrub has weak stems (mostly many) and climbs on other trees. I found it in Alain Abu Dhabi. It is in the flowering stage now. It has small simple leaves, thorny stalks, and red cherries (though I found one). According to Wikipedia, it is found throughout the Arabian Peninsula.

Arabian boxthorn is a spreading, very spiny shrub growing 1 – 3 meters tall, exceptionally becoming a small tree up to 4.5 meters tall. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as food and medicine. It is also grown as a hedge. https://arkbiodiv.com/2022/01/23/native-shrubs-are-the-best-for-the-municipal-and-homes-beautifications/

Here the Lycium flora is climbed on an Acacia tortillas tree. I found only one fruit, yellow berry. Inside the fruit is a few small seed-like tomatoes.
Beautiful flowers with olive-like leaves
The stalks are blackish in color

Some more details about the flora Lycium shawii

Lycium shawii is highly adapted to desert ecosystems. The thin-leaved, rigid bush grows up to 3 meters (9.8 feet) high, with a lot of branches and alternating spines that vary in size, and grow along the branches and on their tips. The leaves narrow towards their base. It produces small whitish-pink or purple flowers from Sep to Apr. The fruit is small red pea-sized (seedy berries), edible, and used as herbal medicine as well. The flora like to be the neighbor of Acacia tortillas and Prosopis cineraria to climb and thrive better.

Lycium shawii climbed on an Acacia tortillas tree
Lycium shawii climbed on an Acacia tortillas tree
The shrub has a weaker stem, can’t erect by itself
The thorny stalk of the Lycium shawii

Is it native or exotic?

Yes; It is native to the desert ecosystem of the Arabian Peninsula and some parts of Africa.

It can be used as hedging, fencing, and live wall, my exceptional idea of replacing exotic plants with native flora. https://arkbiodiv.com/2022/01/23/native-shrubs-are-the-best-for-the-municipal-and-homes-beautifications/amp/

Pistachia khunjuk, wild pistachio of greater Zhob, northeast Balochistan

Pistacia khinjuk. Family: Anacardiaceae. A small tree. Wild pistachio. Found on mountain slopes. Common in Zhob. Pashto name: Shinay شنے in Pashtu. The tree is locally called Wanna and a subtype is called Ozgai.

A tree of Pistachia khunjuk in Kila Saifulah Zhob
Leaf of Pistachia khunjuk
Fruit of Pistachia khunjuk , locally known as Shney in Pashtu.


A traditional cuisine prepared from the fruit of Pistachia khunjuk is called Poossa. It is made by crushing the fruits/shney and extracting oil. The seed is so finely crushed that a paste of oil and fruit is produced. It is a highly valuable traditional food.


Under the community efforts with the name of ASHAR, we are struggling to enrich our homeland with the native flora again. Ashar is a historical and traditional way of Pashtuns’ community of joined effort to fulfill a common task. We are using that code of Pashtunwali to make our homeland rich again with flora, fauna, and microbiome.

We need help, please technically support us by providing techniques to grow our native flora, not only the trees but bushes, shrubs and grasses etc. We want to have a technical team in each commune to establish nurseries of native flora and then to plant in different parts of the region with the community ASHAR.

The Living Fossils of Olive Forest in Suleiman Mountainous Region of Pakistan – A Wildfire Engulfed our Precious Flora

It is an olive tree, centuries-old, witnessing a long history. Maybe millions of people, animals, and small creatures have lived and survived on it. Such trees act as mountains of Carbon. We should save such treasure of humanity. ♥️ I call such trees the living fossils.

Wildfire (May 2022) engulfed our living fossils

The wildfire engulfed our precious trees in the Suleiman mountainous region. The fire continued for more than 2 weeks but the administration of the region, province, and the country was helpless. The locals with the help of activists and volunteers of the region somehow managed to cease the spread of the fire to other regions. The federal government of Pakistan requested the Iranian government to help, a fire extinguisher airplane was sent and the fire was extinguished after 2 days of work. The region is home to the world’s unique and precious Chalghoza trees, sustaining the livelihood of the people living in the forest areas. I would suggest giving training to the local people in fire extinguishing and awarding them the importance of such precious trees of the forest. Not only Chalghoza but other native flora, especially Olive, Pine, and others are predominantly found in the forests.

Some pictures of the ancient Olive trees

The pictures in the gallery were shared by Hayat Mulgari, a native inhabitant, and nature activist in the region. He has emphasized and appealed to the world to help the local people in the conservation of such a precious natural treasure.

Links for the wildfire news and images

The fire started on May 10 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s Dera Ismail Khan, which shares a border with Balochistan, and the blaze moved towards Sheerani district on May 13. The fire has consumed hundreds of trees dotting the Koh-e-Sulaiman — a mountain range connecting the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan, Punjab, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa — and forced residents of nearby villages to move to safer locations. The images are taken from different media reports.