Dromedary camel is a one of mammals that can produce and reproduce in the ecosystem of the desert where there is a low availability of water and nutrition, the vessel of the desert can adapt to this hard environment by a lot of physiological processes especially the renal function.The essential role of the renal function is the regulation of homeostasiswhere the kidney removes the metabolic waste products and maintains the water–electrolyte balance and blood pressure. This function is considered as one of the important mechanisms of adaptation for camels to counter body dehydration.
How do camel’s kidneys conserves water
The renal function adapts to all the state of body hydration. In the state of dehydration there is an increase in reabsorption of water and electrolytes (reabsorption: return of water and electrolyte to the blood) and a fall in filtration rate (filtration: passage of water and electrolyte to form the primitive urine) by increased concentrations of ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) and Aldosterone , These two hormones act to conserve body water by absorption of salt and water from the gut and by renal conservation of water.(Etzion and Yagil 1986)
Camel can rehydrate rapidly
Long term tolerance to the lack of water while remaining active and is specific to camels. Camels, however, also rapidly replace lost water, often drinking as much as 200 liters in minutes. Goats and dogs also belong to the group of mammals that rapidly replace lost water; how- ever, the water is not absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream .The camel does appear to have rapid absorption of water into the blood. (Etzion and Yagil 1986)
The camel has thus adapted to the desert not only by being able to withstand severe dehydration but also by being able to rapidly restore body functions.
Z. ETZION and R. YAGIL,1986.RENAL FUNCTION IN CAMELS (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS) FOLLOWING RAPID REHYDRATION.
In the breathing phenomenon, we inhale air to take Oxygen and exhale to remove CO2 from the body. During the inhaling, the air temperature is the same as the ambient temperature and the exhaled air is the same as body temperature with 100% humidity. So, this way all the breathing animals lose both water and energy during the breathing.
In the mysterious camels, the temperature of the exhaled air is dropped and the heat energy and water are reabsorbed in the nose. While exhaling the camels dehumidify the air with the help of specialized hair in the nose as the nasal opening is very narrow and hairy, remains wet all the time. This way the airy, narrow and wet nasal opening reabsorb the moisture and energy both and return to the body. This phenomenon is one of the other most important phenomena of the camels’ unique strategy to conserve water in the arid conditions of its habitat.
This humidifier system also minimizes the risk of infection, the vapor change into the water and returns back to the pharynx and is swallowed by camels, ultimately the microbes reach the stomach. In the stomach, any type of harmful microorganism is killed.
when the exhale air is condensed by the nasal pad (specialized in camel work as a cooling pad), the heat is released which keeps the camel’s head cold (coping with the extremely hot weather). The densely fibrous nasal track makes a very cooling vent with the help of moisture keeping the head of the camel cold in extremely hot weather.
You might have gone through my article as the camel has adapted unique physiological tools to keep the inside body cooler like they urinate thicker urine on their thighs and the femoral veins get cooler and the cold blood is passed through the kidneys, liver and reach to the core of the circulatory system, the heart. https://arkbiodiv.com/2021/04/16/syrup-or-gel-like-urine-of-camels/
camel keeps its nasal pass wet to cope with the extremely dry conditions