Dromedary camel is a one of mammals that can produce and reproduce in the ecosystem of the desert where there is a low availability of water and nutrition, the vessel of the desert can adapt to this hard environment by a lot of physiological processes especially the renal function.The essential role of the renal function is the regulation of homeostasis where the kidney removes the metabolic waste products and maintains the water–electrolyte balance and blood pressure. This function is considered as one of the important mechanisms of adaptation for camels to counter body dehydration.
How do camel’s kidneys conserves water
The renal function adapts to all the state of body hydration. In the state of dehydration there is an increase in reabsorption of water and electrolytes (reabsorption: return of water and electrolyte to the blood) and a fall in filtration rate (filtration: passage of water and electrolyte to form the primitive urine) by increased concentrations of ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) and Aldosterone , These two hormones act to conserve body water by absorption of salt and water from the gut and by renal conservation of water.(Etzion and Yagil 1986)
Camel can rehydrate rapidly
Long term tolerance to the lack of water while remaining active and is specific to camels. Camels, however, also rapidly replace lost water, often drinking as much as 200 liters in minutes. Goats and dogs also belong to the group of mammals that rapidly replace lost water; how- ever, the water is not absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream .The camel does appear to have rapid absorption of water into the blood. (Etzion and Yagil 1986)
The camel has thus adapted to the desert not only by being able to withstand severe dehydration but also by being able to rapidly restore body functions.
Z. ETZION and R. YAGIL,1986.RENAL FUNCTION IN CAMELS (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS) FOLLOWING RAPID REHYDRATION.