In this article, the term SSPS will be used both for agriculture and livestock production. SSPS is playing a crucial role in food production and biodiversity conservation throughout the world. In agriculture, SSPS is mainly comprised of farmers holding less than 2 hectares of land. Such farmers usually depend on their local seed verities and use farmyard manure from their own animal waste for the fertility of their field crops. They do not use or rarely use pesticides and herbicides. They control pests with their own local/indigenous knowledge (IK), mainly comprised of biological control. They use their own skills for weed control, such as rotational cropping and grazing by the livestock, etc.
The system has subsistence foundations
Small-scale livestock production is based on subsistence foundations. Such livestock keepers keep mostly their indigenous livestock breeds, as local breeds are well adapted to the ambient ecosystems (harsh and hostile). Local livestock breeds are resistant to many diseases and pests, like ticks and flies, etc. Indigenous livestock breeds (ILB) need very low inputs or even zero inputs for their production and survival. In many cases, small-scale livestock keepers are landless farmers. They rely on marginal lands for grazing of their livestock; such lands have no other use. The smallholding agriculture farmers are also holding small-scale livestock for food production, agricultural operations, and soil fertility.
Community style of farming has more resilience
Sadly, the system is under threat
Biodiversity: Biodiversity conservation is linked to the question of food security. There is a very strong link between biodiversity and food security. The more diversified the agroecosystems (life, soil, landscape, etc) more the resilience of the community to climate change. Unfortunately, more than 90of crop varieties have disappeared from farmers’ fields and half of the breeds of many domestic animals have been lost. The other flora and fauna, not documented and studied are even not recorded.
Community orchards and farming nourish with low or zero-input systems
The small-scale production system is very important for food security in the climate change context and the conservation of biodiversity. Millions of people around the world are involved both in production and consumption through this system. Such a system is very much resilient to climate change and droughts. While using a very low or neglected quantity of fossil oil, they are mitigating climate change. The system is the custodian of the precious biodiversity of the agroecosystems, rich with biodiversity and in harmony with nature. Unfortunately, forces like globalization, open market economies, gene control, and industrialization/mechanization in agriculture are threatening this system. There is an utmost need to characterize, document, visualize and prioritize this system both as a food security option and conservation of biodiversity. Also, it is needed for time to give the opportunity to play its role in future food production systems.
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capitalism is near to fall.
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Community farming, small scaled farming, and Pastoralism all making one system. The one system is ecofriendly and regenerative in performance, providing nature & health friendly food.