The Living Fossils of Olive Forest in Suleiman Mountainous Region of Pakistan – A Wildfire Engulfed our Precious Flora

It is an olive tree, centuries-old, witnessing a long history. Maybe millions of people, animals, and small creatures have lived and survived on it. Such trees act as mountains of Carbon. We should save such treasure of humanity. ♥️ I call such trees the living fossils.

Wildfire (May 2022) engulfed our living fossils

The wildfire engulfed our precious trees in the Suleiman mountainous region. The fire continued for more than 2 weeks but the administration of the region, province, and the country was helpless. The locals with the help of activists and volunteers of the region somehow managed to cease the spread of the fire to other regions. The federal government of Pakistan requested the Iranian government to help, a fire extinguisher airplane was sent and the fire was extinguished after 2 days of work. The region is home to the world’s unique and precious Chalghoza trees, sustaining the livelihood of the people living in the forest areas. I would suggest giving training to the local people in fire extinguishing and awarding them the importance of such precious trees of the forest. Not only Chalghoza but other native flora, especially Olive, Pine, and others are predominantly found in the forests.

Some pictures of the ancient Olive trees

The pictures in the gallery were shared by Hayat Mulgari, a native inhabitant, and nature activist in the region. He has emphasized and appealed to the world to help the local people in the conservation of such a precious natural treasure.

Links for the wildfire news and images

The fire started on May 10 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s Dera Ismail Khan, which shares a border with Balochistan, and the blaze moved towards Sheerani district on May 13. The fire has consumed hundreds of trees dotting the Koh-e-Sulaiman — a mountain range connecting the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan, Punjab, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa — and forced residents of nearby villages to move to safer locations. The images are taken from different media reports.

The Donkey~ Also a Good Riding Animal

The Donkey~ Also a Good Riding Animal

This donkey belong to Shingharri breed from Daman area of Kohe Suleiman. This breed of donkey is unique of its kind. Very well adapted to mountainous ecosystem and carry up to 120 Kg for more than 25 KM. Also a good riding and docile animal.



Henderson and the donkey
Henderson and the donkey (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


World donkey day was celebrated worldwide.

Body Condition Score (BCS) in Camel~ A tool for assessment of Adaptation

Assessing adaptation of camel to a specific ecosystem by the body condition scoring is a new idea. This idea/theme was introduced by the author during Ph.D. work in the Suleiman mountainous region of Balochistan. A number of 60 camels of the same age, sex (all female), and physiological status and body condition score were selected from each breed (Kohi and Pahwal or Gaddai) for this study (total 180). This study was continued for 135 days. The animals were grazing freely in the same grazing area. The major feedstuffs were trees and bushes, i.e. Acacia, Olivia, caragana spp, haloxyllon etc. No extra feed was offered to the camels of the study.

Kohi camel with BCS 3
  1. Body condition scores 1. Weakest animal.
  2. Body condition scores 2. Weak animal
  3. Body condition scores 3. Fair animal
  4. Body condition scores 4. Good animal
  5. Body condition scores 5. Excellent animal

The BCS was assessed at the last week of the study period. BCS was done by the excellent breeders of both breeds and the author. The majority of the of Kohi breed remained in the good body condition scoring (3-5) while Pahwal lowered to the weaker BCS (2-3) and lost weight gradually with the period of time in that specific period. It was revealed that Kohi camel is highly adapted to the mountainous ecology of Suleiman mountains.

Kohi camel with medium (3) BCS

This concept (using BCS to assess the drought tolerance ability of camel) is an initiative and idea of the author which can be polished further and may be used for the selection of highly adapted breeds of rangeland for conservation and further propagation.

This camel (sick) picture is given only to tell the lowest BCS (1)
Kohi camel with BCS 2

An example of the best fit camel from Thar Desert

In 2008, a team of scientists from UAF including me visited many livestock ecosystems of Balochistan and Sindh. In Thar region of Sindh ‘NAGAR PAKAR’ I participated in camels’ festival. I found very unique and beauty breed of camels ‘Deshi or Thari’ which impressed me very much because of health and beauty. They are very good camels for riding, racing and even milk. I used the picture of Deshi camel as featured picture of this article.

Native Thar desert's camel known as Deshi camel
An all purpose camel breed of Thar desert. Native Thar desert’s camel known as Deshi camel.