Small scale production system is very important for food security in the climate change context and conservation of biodiversity. Millions of people around the world are involved both in production and consumption through this system. Such a system is very much resilient to climate change and droughts. While using a very low or neglected quantity of fossil oil, they are mitigating climate change. The system is the custodian of the precious biodiversity of the agroecosystems, rich with biodiversity and in harmony with nature. Unfortunately, forces like, globalization, open market economies, gene control and industrialization/mechanization in agriculture are threatening this system. There is utmost need to characterize, document, visualize and prioritize this system both as a food security option and conservation of biodiversity. Also, it is the need of time to give the opportunity to play its role in the future food production systems.