Tetraena qatarensis synonyms to Zygophyllum qatarense are nomads’ medicine in the desert


Tetraena qatarensis, commonly known as Harm or Hadiddi is not only a source of food for desert creatures but had been used for the treatment of different ailments in the remote areas of the desert. The aqueous extract of the plant is used for;

  • Lowering of blood pressure
  • Acts as a diuretic
  • Pain killer and antipyretic
  • Local anesthesia (the extract is applied on the joints and longbone muscles)
  • Anti-histamine/antiallergic activity, stimulation
  • Anti-depression
  • Anti-constipatory
  • Contraction of the uterus (full of phytoenzymes) and
  • Vasodilation.
  • A good sunblock in the desert
  • Provides freshness to the skin
  • Remedy for certain types of dermatitis
  • Topical applications of plasters obtained by mixing oil/fat with the grinded aerial parts of Zygophyllum for the treatment of Mastitis (udder inflammation) in livestock

You can read a lot of material in my articles provided for knowledge sharing from the desert. Please share your knowledge regarding the desert, ecology, and flora of the drylands, especially important with the context of livestock grazing and traditional healing, etc.

Close view of Zygophyllum qatarense
One of the best bushes fits in the desert ecosystem.

How does Tetraena qatarensis synonym Zygophyllum qatarense Support Wildlife and Livestock in the Desert?


Desert biodiversity, ranging from flora to fauna, and the detritivores and micro-organisms are unique and important, playing pivotal roles as biotic players of the desert ecosystems. I have been exploring the role of Zygophyllum qatarense in the desert for many years and share interesting facts from time to time. https://arkbiodiv.com/2017/01/08/the-strong-and-resilient-plant-of-desert-zygophyllum-zygophyllum-qatarense/

How Zygophylum. q provides life supporting opportunities to other living creatures?

Zygophyllum qatarense provides not only food (leaves and twigs for livestock and wild animals), but also provide life support to the birds and insects. This plant is also an important source of water for camels & goats (the plant’s bulbs are full of water and minerals), the birds (migratory birds eat the bulbs for water and salts), flowers provide nectars for the butterflies and bees (ultimately provide prey for migratory birds), and the mature/fallen bulbs become the food for the detritivores. https://youtu.be/Izc8O6tdj5A

Migratory birds in the month of November enjoying the desert ecosystem and its food chain is supported by the Zygophyllum qatarense
A beautiful migratory bird sitting on the top of the Zygophyllum qatarense in Empty quarters desert, UAE

Zygophyllum qatarense is the only source of water in the extreme dry conditions of the EQ Desert

This is really a unique flora with almost 0 % water loss. It absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and the scatter roots in the sands absorb moisture from the due in the cooler hours of the night. I call this plant a water trap in the desert. The plant redirects or reabsorbs the moisture of the transpiration with the help of the tiny hairs. This plant is really very strange and unique. It is called Harram in Arabic. https://arkbiodiv.com/2021/11/14/leaves-and-twigs-of-zygophyllum-qatarense/

Liwa region, Abu Dhabi UAE
The mix of red and grey sands’ desert in Empty Quarters Desert with the blend of Zygophyllum q. provides a panoramic and fascinating view
Zygophyllum qatarense is the only source of water, trapping water from the atmosphere’s moisture and converting it into available water and mineral for the living creatures in the challenging desert’s conditions.

Zygophyllum is nomads’ medicine – An Additional Note

Zygophyllum qatarense is not only a source of food for desert creatures but had been used for the treatment of different ailments in the remote areas of the desert. The aqueous extract of the plant is used for;

  • Lowering of blood pressure
  • Acts as a diuretic
  • Pain killer and antipyretic
  • Local anesthesia (the extract is applied on the joints and longbone muscles)
  • Anti-histamine/antiallergic activity, stimulation
  • Anti-depression
  • Anti-constipatory
  • Contraction of the uterus (full of phytoenzymes) and
  • Vasodilation.
  • A good sunblock in the desert
  • Provides freshness to the skin
  • Remedy for certain types of dermititis

KAZAKHSTAN: Ancient nomads spread earliest domestic grains along Silk Road, study finds


See on Scoop.itSustainable Livestock Agenda SLA

Charred grains of barley, millet, and wheat deposited nearly 5,000 years ago at campsites in the high plains of Kazakhstan show that nomadic sheepherders played a surprisingly important role in the early spread of domesticated crops throughout a mountainous east-west corridor along the historic Silk Road, suggests new research from Washington University in St. Louis.

“Our findings indicate that ancient nomadic pastoralists were key players in an east-west network that linked innovations and commodities between present-day China and southwest Asia,” said study co-author Michael Frachetti, Ph.D., an associate professor of archaeology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University and principal investigator on the research project.

See on news.wustl.edu

The future of Mongolian nomadic lifestyle under debate! Same situation of other nomadic societies in the world


The report is self explainatory. The situation of other Nomadic societis is almost the same.

Listen and download: Dr Caroline Upton talks on the issues facing Mongolian nomadic herdershttp://soundcloud.com/university-of-leicester/the-future-of-mongolian/s-aYEoy

 Geographers from the University of Leicester are involved in research on pastoralism, environment and livelihoods at a critical juncture in decision making over the future of Mongolia’s rural areas.Image

 The two year study, Community, Place and Pastoralism: Nature and Society in Post-Soviet Central Asia, funded by the Leverhulme Trust and involving work in both Mongolia and Kazakhstan, led to a meeting in Ulaanbaatar in September 2012, organised by the University of Leicester team and their Mongolian colleagues. At this meeting herders were able to discuss key land and livelihood issues directly with ministers, donors and government advisors.

 Dr Upton, the Principal Investigator for the project, said: “Mongolian herders are facing multiple pressures on their livelihoods, traditionally based on nomadic pastoralism, from climate change, mining, desertification and new policies on land. Through our project, national decision makers were brought together with affected parties and local stakeholders to debate some of the vital issues pertaining to nomadic culture, livelihoods and identity in modern Mongolia. They were also able to draw lessons from the Kazakh context, based on our project results.”

 Dr Moore, the project Research Associate, who spent 5 months conducting fieldwork in Mongolia, said: “The herders that I met were deeply aware of climatic and environmental change in their pastures that are affecting their lifestyle. They often have to move further and more often to find good grazing for their goats, sheep, horses and camels. Therefore many are concerned that any moves towards privatisation of pasture will reduce their ability to maintain their livelihoods and nomadic culture.”

 In recent years, Mongolian herders have been encouraged through government policy and donor interventions to form herder groups. These groups are designed to collaborate in pasture management, labour sharing and environmental conservation, as well as marketing of their livestock products, thus improving local livelihoods and resilience.

 A long-debated draft pastureland law, to be considered by the new Mongolian government in the next session of parliament, seeks to strengthen rights to key seasonal pastures for families and herders groups. Although this law focuses on possession rather than ownership rights, for some herders it has raised fears over the ultimate privatisation of pastureland and reduction in the ability to move, particularly in times of need.

 Government policy is also promoting intensification of livestock production. Thus, there are tensions between mobile and more sedentary livestock production in rural areas and questions are raised over the place of nomadic culture and identity in modern Mongolia.

 Dr Upton said: “This is a critical moment in decision making about the future of Mongolia’s rural areas. Enhanced rights of herders’ groups to key seasonal pastures have the potential to make positive contributions to local livelihoods and to conservation. Increases in mining activity also make the recognition of land rights especially important, so that herders’ voices may be heard in defending and seeking compensation for land loss and displacement.

 “However, centuries old traditions of mobility, flexibility and reciprocity should not be lost. As other pastoral cultures have found, ‘modernity’ does not necessarily equate with sedentarisation or privatisation. Nomadic heritages and practices retain great value”.

 The Leverhulme team are finalising detailed reports and articles to share with herders, international donors, and government policy makers, as part of their contribution to these vital, ongoing debates. Results of the work have also been presented at this years’ Royal Geographical Society (with Institute of British Geographers) annual conference in Edinburgh.

 

Pahwal or Gaddai camel


Camel is one of the important modes of transportation for the nomad (Kochis) who travels longer with their livestock, especially sheep and goats. The Gaddai or Pahwal breed of camel is unique of its kind and highly resistant to foot rots in cold wet weather, walks longer distances and can exist in cold and wet weather with scarce feed and water resources. The word Gaddai is derived from Pashtu (the Afghan Kochis mother tongue), meaning compact and round. Pahwal is the word use for Kochis in some Pashtun tribes. The milk production potential is lower, ranges from 3-10 liter per day but the higher variation is the option hope of a medium dairy potential.

Pahwal or Gaddai camel
The Afghan nomad with their Gaddai camel’s herd in their winter destination of Thal Duki, Lorelai district of Balochistan

As this breed of camel belongs to Pashtun/Afghan Kochis (nomads), therefore, they travel from central Afghanistan to north-east Balochistan. Some nomads even cross Suleiman mountains and enter in Indus delta (Punjab province of Pakistan). Characterization and significance of Raigi camel, a livestock breed of the Pashtoon pastoral people in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Some tribes of the Kochis cross Bolan pass and enter in Kachhi area of Balochistan and some go further and enter in Sindh province, use the Indus river banks and adjoining areas for grazing of their livestock and the nomads work in the crops of local farmers.

cropped-camel-pic.jpg
A view of the Gaddai camel in the Kakar Khurasan region of Pakistan

Unfortunately, some Kochis are leaving camel culture and adapted tractors for luggage transportation because of the hinders in the historic routes and war and conflict in the region. Also, the land grabbers deforested the Indus banks and grabbed the lands for the cropping, especially the cotton crop.Floods, river Indus and the local livestock breeds in Pakistan

 

NOMAD_AFG

Some tribes replaced camels with the tractors, while the others use a donkey for this purpose. The donkey is equally good and strong transport animal but the longer distances really need the incredible camel.

This breed is under threat because of many reasons, all are manmade. Gaddai is one of the strongest breed/lines of a camel in the region. The British empire chose this breed of the camel to export to the Australia and used in terrain rugs of the country for heavy transport. The Australian camels are mainly composed of this breed.