Donkey! Shingharri Breed

Habitat: The production area of this breed is Khurasan, Suleiman mountainous region, Marri and Bugti hills. The nucleuses of the breed are Kakkal of Kibzai tribe, Meerkhani of Buzdar tribe, salatha and Hazargat of Maghdozai tribe, Zamari, Shighala of Mardanzai tribe, Sharan of Babakarkhail tribe, Kohai of Issot, Goshani area Baloch tribe and Masuri tribe of Bugti area. The nomads are the main traders and users of the breed.

Phenotypic characteristics: There are many colors in Shinghari breed of donkey, but the dominant and selective color is white. The breed is of larger size and well adapted for the ecology of the area. Famous drought animal use equally by the city draught carters, nomads and pastoral people locally. Now a day’s very famous and widely use by chromites mines diggers. Carry a weight of load on back up to 240 kg in plain areas and 160 kg in mountainous areas.  Age at first mating is 2-4 years depending upon the feed availability and type of work.

Vegetation: Consume all types of grasses and bushes. Even consume woody vegetation of trees. Eat bark and wood in the time of feed scarcity.

Population: Population is about 1.2 million and the trend is increasing in breeding herds and decreasing sporadic use by ordinary people and carters in cities. The use is decreased in cities because of China’s made Rickshaw for work. This decreased use is replaced by mining industry.

Special traits:

v  Very hardy and consume very fibrous feeding materials

v  No leech infestation because drink water with closed jaws

v  Highly resistant to diseases

v  Very fit to work in mountainous ecology

v  Can walk long, making it fit for nomadic system

Economic importance: The Shinghari donkey is very famous drought animal use equally by the city donkey carters, nomads and pastoral people locally. The demand is increasing in the mining industry, especially chromites mining. The main marketing place is Mangrota camel fair. The price of a vigorous healthy male may reach to 50,000 Rupees per head.

Kohe-Suleimani officially Lohani

Habitat: Musakhail, and other mountainous area of Suleiman mountains, Zhob, Sherani, Kakar Khurasan, Loralai, Kohlu, Barkhan, Qillasaifullah, Dera Bugti and Sibi districts. The tribes rearing this breed of cattle are many, i.e. Pani, Kakar, Mandokhail, Hasni, Syed, Buzdar, Kethran, Sherani and other Pashtoon and Baloch tribes. The nucleuses of the breed are Zamri area of Musakhail and Rarkan area of Barkhan districts.

Phenotypic characteristics: The breed has wide diversity and there are many colors, i.e. white with red spots, white with black spots, red, brown, black, tan and grey colors. The size variability is also there, i.e. the animals live in the high altitude have compact body with smaller body size and the animals live in the river and plain area get larger body size.

The cattle of this breed reaches to puberty at the age of 2 years in good feeding conditions. The milk production is 18 to 30 piala (Piala is a local measurement, measure with local tea cup and 8 piala is one kg) daily, in ordinary grazing system. Body condition score is always good than the pure and cross Friesian. The milk is also thick, very high consumer preference and produces more ghee. The ghee of the breed is highly preferred and many Pashto poems are singing to praise it.

Vegetation: The vegetation like by Kohe-Suleimani cattle is mainly composed of bush, mainly found in the streams and river banks. The main vegetations are comprised of Sargasse, Saba, Mashkana, Surmagh or Spermagh, Lukha, Viza, Barvasa and Saba etc.

Population: The breed is found in a large territory of Balochistan and also in the adjoining parts of Punjab and Pakhtoonkhua provinces. The population estimation is for the areas falling in the Balochistan province is about 1.8 million and the trend is increasing.

Special traits:

v  They climb in mountains and use the vegetation of the high altitudes

v  Consume highly fibrous material

v  The disease register is very low, highly resistant to trypanosomiasis and other ticks diseases.

The kal sakhta (resistant to dry years)

v  Milk production is persistent and not adversely affected by weather and feed scarcity

v  Very hardy animal and use for draught power in mountains

The yakh sakhta (resistant to cold weather)

Option hopes: More effective tool against drought, because of its climbing ability and consuming highly fibrous feed

Economic importance: The male animals once mainly use for draught power is now getting very higher prices in market for its meat quality. Mostly male animals are sold at the age of 3 years at the occasion of EidulAdha and catch very high prices. The milk is mainly use for family use and extra milk is converted in ghee. The ghee is usually consume at family level but extra is sell out by the women of the family and the earning goes to women. This breed is very important for woman.

Kohi Camel Breed of Suleiman Mountainous Region

Kohi

Kohi camel is predominantly found in Suleiman mountainous region of Balochistan, Pashtoonkhua and Punjab provinces of the country. Some specimens are also found in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. But 70% of the breed is found in the Balochistan province.

 Production systems and socioeconomic importance

There are three major camel production systems in this region viz; nomadic, transhumant or semi-nomadic and sedentary. Socio-economic importance of camel is closely associated with existed production systems. These systems are largely determined by climatic conditions, a topography of the land, plant growth phenology, water sources, etc. As the camels are always on the move, they hardly spend more than one month at one place.

The Kohi camel plays a pivotal role in the socio-economic activities of the region. It is used in the high mountains of Suleiman mountainous series for the transportation of various items. The animal is well fit for work in that hilly land and the broad wide cannon bone make it well to do in that habitat. Camel is also used for the pastoral migration and milk production. Mangrota camel fair is one of the largest camel’s socioeconomic and cultural activities of the camel herders of Kohi breed. The herders manage camel movement and migration pattern according to the onset of the fair. 

Population size and trend

The Kohi camel breed is one of the major camel breeds in the country. This breed is found in the other provinces of the country also. The estimated number of this breed in Balochistan province is almost 70,000 head. This breed still has the importance for transportation and milk are the byproducts, nevertheless, it produces an average of 10 liters of milk per day. The breed is growing and there is no threat to the population of Kohi camel, though the ecosystem of the breed is under threat.

 

Breeding goal of the breed

One of the major breeding goals is the production of vigorous and compact animal for work in the mountainous region. The breeders select usually male camel and there is no choice for female. All the females are being bred, as the breeders believe that male animal play role in the breeding of the camel. Milk production is the second major breeding goal because more milk is the security for the healthier calves and ultimately production of the vigorous camel. The other traits of selection are the white color, beautiful muzzle, curly wool, strong wide cannon bone and wide chest.

Special traits of the breed

  • Compact body, strong hindquarter, wide cannon bones and strong foot pad making it specially fit for mountainous ecology
  • Survival in cold weather without housing
  • Browsing in the small area when vegetation is available (easy care and accessible)
  • White nails and yellowish eye color
  • More weight per unit body area (Compact)
  • Highly resistant to diseases locally called as syed
  • Its white color is the phenotypic marker for more milk yield
  • The animal is very loyal and loving to the owners

 Phenotypic characteristics

The Kohi camel is predominantly white in coat color but some animals locally are known as Spole color (light brown with white legs) are also found. The Kohi camel has white nailed either it is white or Spole coat color.  The animal has a compact body, wide cannon bone, big beefy head and short neck. The herders believe that the white color of Kohi camel produces more milk than Spole (brown body white forelegs) animal and a part of this study proved it valid. The phenotypic characteristics of the breed are presented in table 9.

 

two-type-of-kohi-camel.jpg
The 2 lines of Kohi camel, the white Kohi and the Spole Kohi

 

Reproductive and productive performance

The male is ready for breeding at the 4 years of age and female reaches to the time of mating at the age of 3 years. About 50 she-camels are normally bred by one bull camel. While the service period remains for 6 days and estrus cycle ranging from one week to 4 weeks. The conceived she-camel changes her behavior on the 6th day of service and shows a different behavior as erecting her tail when an animal or a person comes near to her. Calving interval is normally two years, depending upon the availability of foliage and lactation length. Average reproductive life of a female is about 20 years. Conception rate of a camel is higher with appreciable calving percentage and rare abortion. A weight of the calf at the birth is almost 35-45 kg, depending upon the sex, nutritional and health status of the dam. Weaning weight at (9 months) is about 155-180 kg. The reproductive and productive characteristics of the Kohi camel.

 

Table Biometric parameters of the Kohi breed

Body measurements Male Female Mean
Head length 42.23 34.16 38.20
Head width 22.60 20 21.3
w.H 176.61 176.13 176.37
T.G 206 207.86 206.93
A.G 234.15 241.5 237.825
TL 50.88 48.10 49.49
EL 12.04 11.77 11.905
EW 6.63 6.99 6.81
NL 88.85 86.18 87.515
BL 140 141.25 140.63
Est. wt 440.69 439.30 439.995

Table Reproductive and productive and traits of the Kohi Camel

No Traits Values
Male Female
1 Average birth Weight 32 – 40 kg 31 – 40 kg
2 Average weaning Weight* 160 – 185 kg 155 – 180 kg
5 Ready for workload 3 yr 3 yr
7 Use for heavy duty 7-8 yr
8 Age of puberty 4 yr 3 yr
9 Average work-life 25 yr
10 Average reproductive life 25 ye 21 yr
11 Conception rate out of herd 50-53%
12 Gestation  period 375-386 day
13 Calving rate out of herd 45-50%
14 Calving interval 2 yr
15 Average milk production 10.7 kg/day
16 Lactation length 8-11 month
17 Wool Production 2.5 kg

Marketing and future economic potential

The animals are grazing in uplands of Suleiman region since March to the end of the September and after that, the animals who ready for sale are moved to the (male) fair of Mangrota, while rest of the animals are moved to the lowlands of Suleiman region and the adjoining areas of Sibi region, where they spend the autumn and winter season. Mangrota animal fair is the biggest of the area and the biggest sale point for the Camels.

The Kohi camel has very good economic potential in future. The camel meat has good taste because of the nature of the vegetation browsed. The Kohi meat is already famous in the pastoral families and has very good potential for export.