Kajalle Sheep Breed of Zhob

Habitat: The nucleus of the breed is Wani , Gosa, Babar, Kapip areas of Zhob and Hassankhail area of Musakhail district. Kakar, Khostai, Babar, Sherani, Hassankhail tribes are the custodians of the breed.
They are mall in size, white body coat with red head, fine dense wool are the
salient feature of Kajalle breed.
Population Trend: The population of the Kajalle sheep is almost 200,000 and the trend is increasing.

Zhob is home to the true sheep and goat culture
Zhob is a very ancient heritage point and home to the precious and unique livestock breeds. It is the cradle of sheep and goat breeds. Gossali or Kajjale sheep is a very unique sheep genetic resources of the region.

The Camels’ Terminologies Need to be Revised

The world terminology in Wikipedia is written as;

Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings.

The camel terminology is mainly derived from a cow/cattle production system in English, which is a wrong approach. I’m giving you food for thought to reconsider and re-establish camel’s terminology. As the camel was domesticated, evolved, and managed for centuries in Arabian Peninsula, the best terminology will be the one used in that region.roadtrip0501_8_base

As an example, I hereby give some terms which I learned here in the region and some are found in the literature. I’m lucky to live in the specific area (Hilli Alqatara in Alain) where the camel was domesticated. I can say, I’m living in the cradle of camels’ domestication. The Ice Cream Species of Plants for the Camel and Goat, the camel ice cream food is found in the region. Al Ain National Museum Explores the History of Domesticated Camels. The analysis of bones found on dig sites across the country indicated that camels were tamed and domesticated no earlier than 1000 BC. 

Raigi camel in Kakar Khurasan region of Northern Balochistan
No.Status of the camelName in Original habitat
1Camel is not a cow… the best word for milking camelNAQA
2Camel male kid is not a calf BUT aQaood
3Camel Female calf is not a heifer but aBakra
4The breeding male is not a bull but aBaeer
Different terminologies for the camels of different ages and sex

Way forward

This area of camel husbandry really needs revision for the establishment of appropriate terminology. It needs to reestablish the terminology with the participation of more wise minds. I’m really looking forward to hearing in this regard.



Arya Warsha – The Cradle of Livestock Domestication

The Bakhtria Kingdom of Ancient Time

Where is Arya Warsha?

Arya Warsha is the ancient habitat where many of the livestock’s ancestors are still found (Afghan ureal, Suleiman Markhur etc), a cradle of domestication (livestock and plants genetic resources), and centre of animal agriculture. Ancient Greeks referred to the land between Central Asia and Indus as Ariana, the land of the Arya (Afghan, Baloch, and Iranian people). As per narrated in the ancient Avesta, Ahura Mazda, or God, created the land of the Aryans surrounded by concentric rings of land and sea. Arya Warsha was actually an ancient part of the Bakhtria, situated in the northeast of the kingdom. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_history_of_Afghanistan

Warsha is ancient word, still in use among Pashtun Pastoralists for the grazing lands or pastures. The pastures of Arya are called as Warsha. The Warsha dominantly used for sheep grazing it is called MURGHA. We have many MURGHA in northern Balochistan (Pashtun dominant region known as Janobi Pashtunkhawa.

Livestock Breeds of Arya Warsha

Arya Warsha is predominately inhibited by sheep breeds, followed by goat (mostly in mountainous parts), cattle (rivers), Yaks (highlands), Camel (both Dromedary and Bactrian), horses, donkey, chicken, and Buffalo (rivers and mountains). Azakheli is the unique and only native buffalo breed. The famous Afghan shepherd dog is also found in the region, mainly with the Afghan kuchis. In the link provided, provides the details of the livestock breeds of the region. https://dry-net.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/091220_potential_of_livestock_breeds_of_Baluchistan_final_.pdf

The historical cradle of livestock domestication is under the severe climate change challenge

The atrocities of climate change are emerging with multi-dimensional outcomes in different parts of the world with different intensities and level of losses. The historical Arya region is one of the worst affected ecosystems. This region is the historical homeland of some very precious livestock species and cradle of domestication. The region is the birthplace of Bactrian camel, Yak, sheep, goat, and horses. The regions are well known for its sheep and cattle culture mainly depending on grasses. In the due course of speedy climate change, the rangelands of the region lost many grass varieties and quantity produced per unit of land. Low rain falls, erratic rains, and unseasonal rains are the main drivers of the climate change while hot spells are catalysts in killing grass varieties and eroding soil.

camel pic

The Sheep and Cattle Herbivores are Under Serious Threat

The sheep and cattle industry of the indigenous breeds is under threat. The drought cycles hit the region resulted in the loss of the sheep and cattle. Three species like Camel, goat and donkey are the most resilience to this climate change. Camel is unique because of the long walking ability and resistance to water & feed scarcity as their special traits.


Camel can be a Silver Lining in the Cloud

A camel can be a good player if explored to ensure food security in such a climate change scenario because of special traits. Unfortunately, the policy makers of the region have never placed camel at its proper place while fabricating policy regarding agricultural development. Authors have striven for years to bring camel in the mainstream of the policy makers but yet need more to be done.

For further reading

KAZAKHSTAN: Ancient nomads spread earliest domestic grains along Silk Road, study finds

See on Scoop.itSustainable Livestock Agenda SLA

Charred grains of barley, millet, and wheat deposited nearly 5,000 years ago at campsites in the high plains of Kazakhstan show that nomadic sheepherders played a surprisingly important role in the early spread of domesticated crops throughout a mountainous east-west corridor along the historic Silk Road, suggests new research from Washington University in St. Louis.

“Our findings indicate that ancient nomadic pastoralists were key players in an east-west network that linked innovations and commodities between present-day China and southwest Asia,” said study co-author Michael Frachetti, Ph.D., an associate professor of archaeology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University and principal investigator on the research project.

See on news.wustl.edu

Problems and Constraints of Indigenous Livestock Keepers of Balochistan

Livestock keeping is one of the main agricultural activities in the historic grazing lands of Balochistan. More than 50% of the native people of the province rely (completely or partially) on livestock. The region is the cradle of livestock breeds domestication, later on, evolved with the tune of climate change and consumers’ demand for the livestock products. Today the livestock keepers of the province have very specialized livestock breeds fulfilling the multipurpose breeding goals of the keepers. In spite of all the good roles they play, the livestock keepers here are neglected, discouraged, and left unattended. One can read about the traditional livestock breeds of Balochistan in the link below. https://arkbiodiv.com/2012/01/03/indigenous-livestock-breeds-of-balochistan/amp/

Grazinglands’ detrioration

Grasslands or rangelands’ production potential had been decreased manifold because of the long drought periods and overgrazing (more livestock on lesser carrying capacity). Deforestation made the situation adverse more than ever. The vegetation of the rangelands had been removed for fuelwood very continuously. Both the types and intensity of vegetation had been decreased resulting in dryness and desertification. Due to stress on grazing lands, concurrent droughts, and deforestation, the land has already been prone to erosion resulting in low water absorption. The animal with low-quality feed intake resulted in lower health, poor quality products, and prone to diseases. All the above factors increased the intensity of poverty and many more families crossed the line of poverty.

Traditional Management of Rangelands

Our customary laws are one of the important tools, which can be used for the protection of the rangeland’s vegetation. Pargorr is our traditional way of conservation and an important article of our customary law. Due to the weak control of government and destabilization of the social tribal system, some problems arise with the application of the customary law. The government had been serving since the British era to implement customary laws strictly. Also due to the instability in Afghanistan and other border areas, the irregular movement of the Afghan nomad has worsened the situation (spending more time in the region than the traditional customs).

Pahwali or Kochani sheep breeds, the breed of the nomads

Water scarcity

Water scarcity is one of the major issues in the province. Water sources are very scarce especially in the uplands of the mountains and deep desert. Though, sometimes feed is available when the animal reaches there they can’t reach back to the water source. The water issue is worsting with the passage of each day.

Lack of epidemilogical information and poor animal health facilities

The new disease appeared in the register of livestock diseases of the area due to drought, low vigor, zoonotic, i.e. PPR, a new form of FMD, CCHF, udder decay disease, and the newest is diarrhea with water comes from the mouth. These diseases have been resulting in the loss of millions of livestock. The intensity of the diseases like anthrax, HS, Enterotoxaemia, FMD, pox, CCPP has increased manifolds. The vaccine is most cases is not available and there are no diagnostic labs, if available either not equipped or no staff is available. Livestock vanishes with the consequences of diseases and nobody is responsible for that.

Kohi camel of the Northeastern Balochistan

Modernization and the social change

Social, environmental, anthropological changes are affecting traditional livestock farming very negatively. Modern technologies and media affect the life of livestock keepers, resulting in social change, i.e. the young generation is taking a lesser interest in traditional livestock keeping and migrating to urban areas. This dilemma is resulting in creating pressure on the urban resources. With support from the government (marketing opportunities, education, health facilities, better infrastructure, and others), this trend can be reverted easily. Such support will help the livestock keepers to cope with the change and sustain the way of the production system.DSC03458

Overburden on the natural resources – the human population is also a cause

The human population is increasing speedily because of social changes and putting more pressure on natural resources. Our forefathers had been keeping family size according to the livestock number the family-owned, but the situation is changed now. The changes in the environment have been badly affected our lifestyle and production system. The concurrent droughts, fast winds, creeping desertification had made the situation complex. There are modern techniques to cope with such circumstances in the other parts of the world but the livestock keepers of the province are deprived of it.

Traditional livestock keepers have no representation and no constitutional support

Lack of education in our production system is one of the major social problems. The government has no solution to provide education to our kids in the prevailing conditions. The traditional livestock keepers are left behind with all basic needs like education and health. There is no quota for the livestock keepers in animal health and husbandry education. The urban dwellers are getting the chance to attain livestock professional education with only western perspectives which results in a faulty decision, resulting in the deterioration of our traditional livestock breeds. Illegal export by smugglers of the elite gene pool with the help of the local administration and illegal traders (those who do not pay any tax etc) is a serious threat to our livestock breeds. Also, the government organization imports exotic breeds and crosses our precious well-adapted livestock breeds. In the last drought period, we learned that the indigenous breeds were many folds drought-resistant to exotic breeds. This dilemma is very complex in cattle.

Marketing constraints – Our product is organic and ecofriendly but no support atall

No rules and regulation of marketing, the livestock business benefits go in the pockets of the opportunists’ traders. Our products are organic in nature and have very high value in international markets, but there is institutional and government support to introduce our products at global levels. Slow food is an international organization, promoting traditional food products globally and advocating healthy food systems. Our breeds and lifestyle are traditional and eco-friendly. We are the custodian of the genes and our region is the cradle of domestication. http://www.pastoralpeoples.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/CGRFA_LIFE_sideevent_kakar.pdfDSC01968

Policies without the livestock keepers

The traditional livestock keepers have no access to policy level forums, No share in policies related to livestock and genetic resources. The Government and other agencies’ policies apply from top to bottom approach and the keepers are not asking to share their views and concerns. The policies remain unsustainable and completely fail in a short period of time. The distribution and restocking of livestock projects are eminent examples in this regard (in such projects, the animals were brought from other regions and given to the non-keepers).


In my view, one of the main problems (the root cause) is the low/zero participation of the native livestock breeders in the fabrication of policies and implementation of development projects for livestock development. All the definitions and concepts regarding the management, breeding, feeding and sustainable development of livestock are derived from the western school of thought. The western school of thought for livestock is mainly based on high input and intensive farming with specialized breeds and feeding systems. Such concepts are very hard to fit in the extensive, low input and multipurpose system. Taking on board the livestock keepers for livestock development can bring a cool breeze in this sector, though the process will take a bit longer time.