CHAL~ A Traditional Camel Milk Product of Turkmens’ Cameleers

Turkmen! A Traditional Nomadic Community of Central Asia

Turkmen is a native community of central Asia, predominantly live in Turkmenistan but a sizable number is also found in Afghanistan, Iran, followed by Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Turkmens are very traditional and have strong connections with the livestock and animal agriculture. They are a strong and long traveling nomadic clan of the Central Asia and the custodian of the precious sheep, goat, cattle and camel genetic resources. A major portion of the community is settled in the towns and some are in transition but still a sizable portion of the community still love livestock keeping in nomadic style. The community is practicing camel nomadism since ages and owing a very famous and good milking camel breed, the Aravan.

Importance of Camel Milk in Turkmen Community

The Turkmen Cameleer Nomads love camel and the camel milk. They, like other camel keepers of the world have their own traditional camel milk product called CHAL written in Turkmen is CALY.

Chal, the fermented camel milk production, traditionally prepared by Turkmen nomads.

The author reported this story from the Northeaster Iran, dominated by the Turkmen nomads. For more interest, one can read the country camel report of Iran, prepared by Mahnaz Salehi https://arkbiodiv.com/2016/06/19/the-multipurpose-camels-of-iran-world-camels-day/amp/

CHAL

The Turkmen cameleers use fresh camel milk to prepare Chal. It is actually a sour camel milk prepared traditionally. It is the same as Shubat in Kazakhstan. After preparation, it has white color like other milk products but having a strong sour taste. Chal is a summer staple food, the nomads eat bread while taking sips of the Chal. They think Chal is cold in nature and provide cold environment to the body from inside. The traditional cameleers also consider Chal as anti-infectious and vurucidal.

Also, a camel farm with the size of 500 Arvan camels is producing Chal, Agaran and cream with the brand name Gudratly önüm. https://business.com.tm/post/4301/turkmen-farm-supplies-fresh-camel-milk-to-consumers. So, it means that Chal is not only made by the Turkmen community but also prepared even at larger scale in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.

Making method

There are certain processes, which are considered as the major steps to make the Chal. The processes are given below in ensuing lines.

  • The fresh camel milk is sourced in a skin bag, mostly sheep or goat skin or a ceramic jar (a modernized container).
  • Add already soured milk (more old, more and more strong culture to make Chal). The sour milk maybe from camel or other livestock, mainly cow, followed by goat and sheep.
  • The mixture is stored in the container as mentioned above, get airtight, shaken to properly mix and store to get fermented.
  • In the meanwhile fresh camel milk is added on different intervals for the next 2 to 3 days. But the chal can be used after the 8 hours of fermentation, though more time means more stronger and delicious Chal.
  • Camel milk fermentation needs longer time period then the other milks, i.e. the cow milk needs 4 hours to be fermented but for the same amount the camel milk needs double time, 8 hours at 30 centigrade temperature.
  • If the weather is cooler, then it needs more time to be fermented as camel milk needs more than 72 hours at 10 C temperature to be fermented.
  • If strong and highly sour milk is used for fermentation, then a thick layer appear on the surface of the Chal, which is known as AGARAN (fermented fat).
  • After the removal of the AGARAN, the leftover is called as Chal which is also called DOUGH in Persian.
  • But if we want it be sourer and more tasty we can leave it again for 4 or 8 hour s in 20 to 25 c to be more carbonated.
Turkmen Cameleers with their famous Aravan Breed

This fermented product of camel milk is very beneficial for gut and colon health; reduce cholesterol and high blood pressure and even it has anti diabetes effects. Also, like mentioned above, the nomadic community believe that it works as anti-infectious and antiviral. https://camel4milk.wordpress.com/2016/05/02/value-of-camel-milk-in-central-asian-traditional-medica/amp/

You can see the composition of plain camel milk and Chal which will give you more clarity about the value of the Chal. The link is provided here to know further about the Chal. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chal

Why the Camel Milk is Anti-Infectious or Immunity Booster?

Traditionally, camel milk had been using for the cure of complex ailments in the long periods of the history. Now, the different scientific studies are being conducted and many are underway to explore the magic powers of camel milk and to find the molecules in camel milk which materializing the healing of different diseases.

Camel is very unique and special creature, blessed with very unique charecteristics. As the camel is unique and incredible, the same are the products of camel, especially the camel milk. Traditionally, camel milk had been using for the cure of complex ailments in the long periods of the history. Now, the different scientific studies are being conducted and many are underway to explore the magic powers of camel milk and to find the molecules in camel milk which materializing the healing of different diseases.

I hereby give some exemples of the precious molecules found in the camel milk which are incredibly work for the curing of the complex health ailments. One of the best example is the immunoglobulins. The immunoglobulins of the camel milk combat autoimmune diseases by strengthen the immune system, and can fight some bacteria like tuberculosis and protect the body from bacterial and viral infections.

Camel milk contains various protective proteins and enzymes which have antibacterial and immunological properties that strengthens the antibacterial & antiviral activities. Camel milk can enhance the cellular immune responses and inhibits the replication of virus’ DNA and recovers chronic, such phenomenon support in healing of hepatitis B.

The most important in the present scenario of immunity crisis is the lactoferrin. Lactoferrin of camel milk proved to be more potent (anti-viral) than human and cow’ milk. Also the antibodies of the camel milk are selective controller to virus systems; camel milk lactoferrin inhibits the entry of the virus into the cells and saving its consumers from the viral diseases.

Camel Milk and Addition of New Products to the Dairy Industry

The healthy effects of camel milk are attracting increasing attention from the consumers and the food industry. This is a very interesting new trend and requires some more research to optimize and develop consumer-acceptable functional products for commercialization.

Cow milk and its products have been dominating the dairy industry for decades after the industrialization of the food sector. The contribution of other animal species, such as buffalo, goats, sheep, and camel, is minimal. However, milks from these animals have great advantages and potential.

The camel milk is unique starting from its white color and glossy appearance and up to its therapeutic effects and processing challenges.

Camel milk, in particular, is a very unique and healthy product with especially anti-allergic and anti-diabetic effects. Several studies have shown that camel milk has some therapeutic potential in both type-1 and type-2 Diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that suggest that drinking of half a liter of camel milk per day contribute to decreasing fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and plasma insulin levels in both types of diabetes. The healthy effects of camel milk are attracting increasing attention from the consumers and the food industry. This is a very interesting new trend and requires some more research to optimize and develop consumer-acceptable functional products for commercialization.

“Don’t limit your challenges.

Challenge your limits.”

Anonymous

The dairy industry process cow milk into different types of products including pasteurized milk, ultra-high heat treated milk, fermented products, and milk powders and formulations. Camel milk can be pasteurized, like cow milk, but it faces challenges during fermentation to yogurt and cheese. Research have shown that it is difficult to produce set-type yogurt and hard cheese from camel milk due to different milk composition and characteristics. These products are generally more liquid and soft but camel milk is perfect for the manufacture of fermented drinkable yogurt. Several products are produced by the traditional societies such as laban in the Middle East, garis in Sudan, suusac in Kenya and Somalia, dhaanan and ititu in Ethiopia, chal in Iran and Turkey, and shubat in Kazakhstan. These products are believed to be healthy and this is supported by scientific findings.

Actually, a number of products can be developed from camel milk including milk powders and drinkable fermented products. Camel milk has special taste and flavor and may feel different or unliked by some consumers. However, other consumers who are used to it do not substitute it with cow milk despite its higher price (camel milk is 3-10 times more expensive than cow milk, depending on country). Some consumers believe that raw camel milk is more healthy than pasteurized milk but raw camel milk might be contaminated with unhealthy bacteria. The shelf-life of camel milk is longer than that of cow milk and, therefore, quality standards need to be developed for camel milk.

Research is creating new knowledge.

In much of society, research means to investigate something you do not know or understand

Neil Armstrong

As part of my job as a professor at the United Arab Emirates University, I do research on the composition, structure, and properties of camel milk. We try to understand how different is camel milk in its chemical composition and how those differences explain and relate to the different behavior of this camel with regard to nutrition and product properties. We find this research challenging and exciting and we are always making new discoveries. In our research, we collaborate with food industries and scientists in UAE and abroad. Working together with others who are excited about camels and their products is highly inspiring. Some of our recently published papers are listed below.

Relevant Publications

1- Sobti, B., Al Teneiji, H. A. A., and Kamal-Eldin, A. (2019) Effect of added Bovine Casein and Whey Protein on the Quality of Camel and Bovine Milk Yoghurts.  Emirates Journal of Food & Agriculture31: 804-811 (open access).

2- Kamal-Eldin, A., Al Hammadi, A., Gharsallaoui, A., Hamad, F., Ghnimi, S. (2020) Physicochemical, Rheological, and Microstructural Properties of Yogurts Produced from Mixtures of Camel and Bovine Milks. NFS Journal 19: 26-33 (open access).

3- Mbye, M., Sobti, B., Al Nuami, M. K., Al shamsi, Y., Al Khateri, L., Al Saedi, R., Saeed, M., Ramachandran, T., Hamed, F., and Kamal-Eldin, A. (2020) Physicochemical properties, sensory quality, and coagulation behavior of camel versus bovine milk soft unripened cheeses. NFS Journal (in press).

Llama Antibodies May Help with Neutralizing COVID-19

Having been in the camel’s world of research and development, I have been advocating the camel as the animal of choice in the challenging environments as a model animal. The camel (Arabian and Bactrian) milk is also rich with super and unique nutrients, some act as ant-infectious and immune boosters. Camel milk makes immune system stronger as it contains series of protective proteins such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A.http://camel4all.blog/2020/04/22/a-book-on-camels-wins-nautilus-award/. I hereby suggest clinical trials for the camel milk as an agent of antibodies against the viral infections in particular with the COVID-19. Camel milk have already been studied as support in the diabetes management.

A Scientific Breakthrough in the context of the COVID-19

Llama antibodies could help neutralize COVID-19; Discovered in Brussels back in 1989. A new study from the Vlaams Institutes if Biotechnology in Ghent, Belgium, has reported that antibodies obtained from the blood of llamas can help fight the coronavirus.

American and Belgian scientists told the Sunday Times that “These molecules may serve as useful therapeutics during coronavirus outbreaks, The feasibility of using [llama antibodies] merits further investigation.”

Having been in the camel’s world of research and development, I have been advocating the camel as the animal of choice in the challenging environments as a model animal. The camel (Arabian and Bactrian) milk is also rich with super and unique nutrients, some act as ant-infectious and immune boosters. Camel milk makes immune system stronger as it contains series of protective proteins such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A.http://camel4all.blog/2020/04/22/a-book-on-camels-wins-nautilus-award/. I hereby suggest clinical trials for the camel milk as an agent of antibodies against the viral infections in particular with the COVID-19. Camel milk have already been studied as support in the diabetes management.

Llama, Alpaca and Camels are same Family

Some researches revealed the peculiar properties of antibodies found in llama blood, camels and alpacas–which are all members of the camelid family. It was originally used in HIV studies and has proved to be effective in fighting a wide range of diseases and viruses which include the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

Conclusion: Camel is the solution to the complex problems of health and nutrition.

For details, read the report in the link; https://www.techtimes.com/articles/248974/20200419/studies-show-that-llama-antibodies-could-help-neutralize-covid-19.htm

Camel Milk is a Food which Boosts your Immune System

Camel milk makes immune system stronger as it contains series of protective proteins such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A.

Immune system is the first defense line

A strong defense mechanism of the body (immune system) is one of the vital pillars of our health. Our defense mechanism is altered and harmed in our daily life because of many reasons. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentID=123&ContentTypeID=134

We can revitalize our immune system

Fortunately, we can revitalize and energize our immune or defense system by some good steps if taken properly and timely. Among those steps, the most important is the food. A special food like camel milk, which could be rich with certain nutrients, helps in boosting our defense system. The second is the good exercise, followed by good sleep and turning off the stress machine of the body. But in this article, we shall discuss the special food role in boosting our defense line against the infections. The camel milk is the most important among the super foods so far known and available.

How the camel milk helps in immune system empowering?

In the ensuing lines, I shall thematically explain how the camel milk can help in strengthening of our immune system? How it really works and which ingredients make the camel milk a super food.

  • Camel milk makes immune system stronger as it contains series of protective proteins such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A. file:///C:/Users/AgroMilk/Downloads/CAMELREVIEWBYSELF.pdf.
  • Camel milk is ant-inflammatory, decreasing stress of the diseases like diabetes and recover the losses happen from the inflammation to the organs and immune system
  • Camel milk is fortified with a special quantity and composition of micro-minerals which provide a fine acid-base balance in the body, revitalizing our body and minimizing the surge of stress releasing hormones
  • Camel milk provide calmness because of its very positive impact on our overall hormonal system which trigger our sleep, resulting in a very good and deep sleep. The deep sleep is another key of immune boosting strategy
  • The nutrients’ richness of the camel milk helps in revitalizing our bodies, giving special stamina for a longer and better exercise. The author is on continuous consumption of camel milk and run above 10 km/day on regular basis at the age of 51 years
  • Camel milk is free of allergen proteins and intolerant lactose, good and suitable for all family. All groups of age and physiological statuses can consume camel milk without any hesitation.

As a camel scientist, regular consumer of camel milk and a disease recovered person (with the camel milk), I would strongly recommend to use camel milk as a vital food in your daily routine. It will give you special vitality, health and energy. I must say, the camel milk will work surprisingly very good if you do some body exertions like work out, cycling, jogging and other physical activities. http://camel4all.info/index.php/2020/03/29/ours-own-immune-system-is-the-first-line-of-defense-against-the-covid-19/

Camel Milk is Closest to the Human Milk

The main task of this article is to tell you about the support and endorsement of my statements regarding the camel milk as a natural therapy. Sometimes I copy and paste paragraphs from an article of a friend ‘Philippa Young’ to tell you about the views of the people who are behind the camels’ facts since years. The link of her article is provided below. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/camel-milk-the-biggest-hu_b_773016?test_ad=readmo_test&guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly90LmNvL0x2Rlo1ZURjSVk_YW1wPTE&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAADhhp5_3V5uSaUJm2hrcVzIi-lGqwx_WnlvJgeAh1Dm5jb6LbseeKSge-JSChsxxYnMwBo6nefsI3lCOns9xD_V7-ypXcJkF2EE3eJwbXB2ZlTmIhqjJdB9E5Dnm46F-oPu2-rD0oUiIWJmHFf8yY6qRAMrNfTXm0BmCk1HytMny

Camel milk is the closest you can get to a human mother’s milk, with 10 times more iron and three times more vitamin C than cow’s milk. It is antibacterial and low in lactose. Used medicinally by nomadic communities for centuries, fermented camel’s milk is still popular in Kazakhstan as a treatment for Tuberculosis and for HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Somalia. Research has been conducted into treating Crohn’s disease, breast cancer and autism, however the most promising studies have been in the field of diabetes. (copy and past from the Philippa article)

The Diabetes Healing Tonic

While almost impossible to make camel milk into cheese, this is good news for diabetes sufferers. Dr. Agrawal of the Bikaner Diabetes Care and Research Centre explains, “We have demonstrated that the consumption of camel milk in type I diabetes results in a significant reduction in the dose of insulin required to maintain long-term glycemic control.” Whilst the 2005 study maintained that insulin therapy is still the best option, in cases of needle phobia or in countries where the cost of treatment demands an alternative, just 500ml of raw fresh camel’s milk daily improves quality of life. This is due to a protein found in camel milk with characteristics similar to insulin that does not coagulate as is the case with cow and goat milk. The camel milk protein passes rapidly through the stomach into the intestines for absorption. https://camel4milk.wordpress.com/category/diabetes/

Camel is Making Space as Non-cow Dairy Animal in the US

Right now in the U.S. the only people who can get hold of the milk ‘a la mode’ are 14 Amish camel dairies and the few parents who have demanded the dromedary juice as a treatment for their autistic child. https://camel4milk.wordpress.com/2015/05/11/camel-journey-from-its-original-habitat-to-modern-world/

“Camel milk is the new oil,” says Director Alicia Sully of The What Took You So Long Foundation (WTYSL), a film crew currently traveling Africa and the Middle East documenting the camel milk industry and campaigning for more research to be undertaken, “Camels don’t produce as much milk as cows, so it’s relatively rare. Camel populations are in decline so sharing knowledge about how valuable its milk is may help save an animal that has supported humans in the desert for thousands of years.”

A wide and diverse appreciation is ever increasing about the role of camel milk as a natural healthy therapy. I suggest you to please read point to point about the camel milk and support my cause with your suggestions and comments.

Homemade Butter from Camel Milk

Making yogurt from camel milk is a challenge and so is the separation of butterfat. After a lengthy effort and trying different modules, ultimately we succeeded to make yogurt, separated butter, got whey (Shlombey, شلومبئ).

Whey made from camel milk

Shlombey is darling drink of the Pashtun Afghan people in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is also called as Pashtun’s wine. In subcontinent, it is called Lassi. It is made from the yogurt while separating the butterfat and adding water. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215639450_Characterization_and_significance_of_Raigi_camel_a_livestock_breed_of_the_Pashtoon_pastoral_people_in_Afghanistan_and_Pakistan

Whey (Shlombey) made from camel milk

Soon, we will be able to have Qurooth (dried hard cheese) from Shlombey. This Qurooth is made with the method of Kararra (کراڑہ، کراړ‎ہ)۔

Butterfat made from camel milk
Butterfat

The methodology is still confidential. We made it at home after a longer efforts. We used traditional method to make it possible. Later, I shall share the methodology, once it is repeated many times with the same results.

I call this achievement as the camel milk revolution.

The Camel Milk Story from the Gobi Desert Mongolia

The story is hereby released at the eve of the World Camel Day 2018.

The author was invited by the newly established Mongolian Camel Milk Company. The group owns their camels in the desert as their half families live there with the precious livestock in the amazing Gobi.

img_51551-e1529573776340.jpgI started traveling from Dubai airport (2 am, 20th April) and reached Ulaanbaatar on the 21st morning 7 am (Cengiz Khaan International Airport) via Moscow by Aeroflot. The 12 hours stay in Moscow Sheremetyevo airport was an excellent experience of life as I slept in a small cabin available on rent, the first time in my life.

A Bank advertisement with camel, the first thing I saw on arrival

Sanaa and Enkhie (the trip organizers) received me at the airport and took me to the hotel (Khuvsgul Lake). Today, the program was composed of some meetings in the UB city with camel scientists/researcher, businessmen and visiting Changiz Khan Museum.

Me with Enkhie in Chansiz Khan Museum

Travel to South Gobi Desert

Next day, we traveled for more than 10 hours by road and reached South Gobi region. We traveled another 1:30 hour to reach the nomad Ger (house). The nomad family warmly welcomed us and we stayed overnight there. I slept in the Ger first time.Nomad house decorated with many camel medals

Gobi is a vast land with rich floral biodiversityThis time period of the year, the nomads do not milk the camels but to let the calf take it and get stronger. The Bactrian camels have beautiful small teats with a strongly attached compact udder.Bactrian camel is very good riding animal

Seeing Camels and Interviewing the Herder

Next day, I woke up in the morning and went to the camels. They are still roaming near the Ger with their calves. The calves are tied. I observed the calves and the dams and found them very healthy and stronger.

Types of camel

There are 3 types of Bactrian camels in the region, i.e.

  1. Galba Gobiin Ulaan (Reddish colored camel)
  2. Khaniin Khestiin Khuren (Brown colored camel)
  3. Thukhum MTungologiin kKhos Zogdott Khuren (double line neck hair)

IMG_5761[1]

Breeding Season

The breeding season starts in October and reached the peak in December and slowly decline and cease in April. Usually, one Bull is enough for up to 70 she-camels. The details of the production traits are given in the table below.

Table: The Production Traits of the Bactrian camel in the region

Months Conception Rate (%) Calving %age Avg. Milk (kg)
Jan 25 25 0.1
Feb 15 16 0.15
Mar 4 5 0.175
Apr 2 3 0.2
May 2 1 0.3
Jun 1 1 1.2
Jul 1 1 1.8
Aug 1 2 1.6
Sep 3 2 1.5
Oct 5 4 0.5
Nov 16 15 0.17
Dec 25 25 0.1

The table clearly indicates the breeding season, calving percentage, and the milk production. The Camel Milk is lower in quantity, producing from 1-3 liter/day but the milk is thick and full of energy to give special strength to the calf to survive in challenging environment. The average milk production based on my survey is 640 ml/day with lactation yield 233 kg. The lactation here calculated on the annual basis but in actual, the camel produces for up to 8 months.

Camel Milk Products

The nomads use camel milk as fresh directly. The surplus is converted into fermented product (Harmok). The Harmok is used very widely and some products are available in the market in Ulaanbaatar. For further details about Bactrian milk, you can go to the link Detailed Nutritional Composition of Bactrian Camel’s Milk

img_55361.jpg
Harmok

The surplus Harmok is converted into CM Vodka and the residues are used to make Curt. The curt and Vodka is offered to the guests as a unique product of the Gobi.

The Attachment of Nomads with camel

The nomads love their camel very much. They call it Temeh in the Mongolian language. They use camel for riding, racing, festivals, wool, and also for meat (in rare cases).

Camel Milk Subsidies the Stress Level- A Preliminary Study Revealed

ABSTRACT

As a matter of fact, I recommend camel milk as a natural therapy for certain health complications, especially diabetes, poor mood, joints/muscle problems, poor metabolism & constipation and poor sleep etc.

In this study (uniquely designed with the blend of traditional Knowledge and scientific principles), different kinds of health situation (3 people) were studied based on the camel milk (CM) therapy. All the complexions were relieved in a certain period of CM therapy but with different magnitudes of recovery. It is a great opportunity for the medical research to conduct studies on CM for the achievement of natural health to save the human health from the negative impacts of the drug residues.

DSC00315
A young Baloch camel herder with camel milk in Karan desert of Balochistan

Methodologies

During the last 2 months, I have conducted some studies with 3 persons for certain complaints. The duration of the camel milk (CM) therapy was 45 days. About 300 ml of CM was provided for 2 months on daily basis. The CM was offered early in the morning before the breakfast. The breakfast was taken after a period of 90 minutes. (The duration of the study and the timing of the milk intake was based on the theory of traditional knowledge.

The CM therapy was used for 3 different conditions. Here the condition means a group of ailments (according to our own definition) which resulted in a circumstance, where multiple systems of the body were involved.

baloch-culture-day-40
A Baloch camel herder in the beautiful landscape of Balochistan

Results and Discourse of the Findings

1. Poor metabolism and Hyper Stress

In this condition, the stress level was too high. The person was over-responsive to minor issues (like workload, management issues, heat stress etc.), feelings of unpleasant moments, and a bad response to food. A bad response to food means ‘the affected person either took more food at one time and did not take food for an abnormal longer duration the other time.

The Discourse 
  • The first condition (over-responsive) improved steadily with the passage of time. The person with this condition started feeling calmness from the inside.
  • The second condition (unpleasant moments) improved better and speedy. The stressed person had more time of pleasant time than unpleasant time, including better and longer sleep period.
  • The third condition (bad response to food) improved very positively and quantitatively. The food intake improved and the affected person started feeling the desire to take food and was very regular in food intake and timing. The person said it was because of the break in constipation because of CM.

2. Joints pain and stressful conditions

The stress of arthritis (pain, lower movability, and less comfort) resulted in a bad time. The desire to walk and other activities were very limited. A complex stress condition was felt by the affected person.

The Discourse 
  • The pain (actual pain) improved slowly but to some extinct. As an experience of the affected person, ‘the stressed conditions multiply the pain manifolds’. The CM helped in controlling the stress of arthritis, which resulted in a tolerable level of pain.
  • The lower movability condition was improved as ‘a pleasant relaxation both in joints (especially knee joints) and muscles/tendons were felt.
  • The condition of less comfort improved so visibly. The affected person started feeling comfortable and relaxed and had a good sleep.

3. Body Aches and High-Stress Level

The affected person was feeling severe body aches, especially in shoulder and neck. The patient was not willing to walk because of weakness in muscles. This condition further painful when the stress inclined because of pain and poor body performance.

The Discourse 
  • The patient started feeling relaxed when took camel milk. Camel milk was realized as excellent thin and cold food (traditional terminology). The CM helped in controlling the stress of the body aches.
  • The patient was eager and willing to walk. The patient managed to walk more than 3 km, a contrast to the situation before the camel milk therapy.
  • The situation of taking interest in daily life improved (traditional terminology).

    DSC04311
    The beautiful habitat of Cholistan desert with Barela camels

When I noticed this improvement, I revied literature and concluded that this improvement by the CM might be linked with the functionality of the glands in the body.

Like adaptogens, (a class of plants used for their healing abilities to balance, restoring, and protecting your body as a whole) camel milk equally works as an agent in balancing the human body through the triggering of the glands. Especially, the CM comes from the camels browsing on a wide verity of plants acquire the characteristics of those herbal plants. I’m copying here the examples of the 2 glands, i.e. The adrenal cortex produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure). The blood-sugar-regulating hormone insulin is not always able to transfer the extra energy (glucose or fat) to the muscle cells for two reasons. … Stress Management is vital to turn around this hormonal domino effect that can lead to elevated blood sugar, insulin resistance.

Camel Milk
The bowl is full of camel milk

An Important Note

The research method and the way of presentation/documentation are derived from the thematic areas of the traditional knowledge. The results are blended with the modern knowledge of gland physiology from the literature review. 

 

The Ultimate Choice or an Old Song with the New Drum?

I hereby to start a discussion about the selection of genetic resource for livelihood in the difficult ecosystems of the world. In my view, a true and durable sustainability of food production can be achieved with the tool of the local/native genetic resources embodied with the traditional knowledge. 

The Kharani camel in the Kharan desert
The best milk yielder in the deserted ecosystems

*Sustainability in true sense means ‘considering the hidden costs like water & carbon footprint along with the other environmental factors.

 Based on my experience and lifetime achievement, the native/local genetic resources are the only choice to ensure livelihood in a true sense of sustainability RESILIENCE OF NATIVE LIVESTOCK BREEDS TO CLIMATE CHANGE
kakeri-sheep.jpg

In the far and wide drylands of the world, local/native genetic resources are playing a pivotal role in sustaining livelihood in the difficult environments since unknown time. To me, the camel is one of the best choices among the best genetic resources.

Originally domesticated for food production, especially milk, the camel was later used for other purposes and the milk became the secondary product.

Good news, that camel is again turning towards its original task, the milk. Camel is no more the animal of the old world, but an animal which may be used to combat the growing desertification and to feed millions of people living in those regions. It has been shown that camels can provide 15-20 liters of milk per day for a lactation period of up to 18 months, making it a very good farm animal.

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Based on my personal experience of a camel farm for milk purpose, some camels can produce >12,000 kg milk per lactation (genetic potential) but the majority of population fall in >3,000 kg. The yield is sustainable in the true sense as camel consumes a lesser quantity of water/kg milk production. The same is true for the energy consumption as the camel doesn’t need weather comfort because of its special genes adapted to hostile weathers. 

Africa, the Climate Change Hot Spot

Studies conducted in the horn of Africa revealed that the camel produced more milk than the other types of tropical animals compared on the basis of kg/TLU/year. A wide part of the African continent is well familiar with the camel milk, and consider it the fluid of choice in all conditions. Camel Milk and Challenges of Modern Time; The Concept of Natural Health

Africa camel

The Treasure is Uncovered in Another Hot Spot

South Asia, especially dryland (Western India and a major part of Pakistan) are the worst affected by the climate change calamities. The great Thar Desert being the habitat of the world’s best milk camel is an uncovered treasure of the region. Badly neglected and hidden from the consideration of the policymakers. A Beautiful Camel Heritage is Sinking

The Camel Milk in Pakistan~An Example

Pakistan is home to 0.9 million camels with a 20% of lactating camel (herd composition) Livestock production and population census in Pakistan: Determining their relationship with agricultural GDP using econometric analysis. About 0.18 million camels give milk for a lactation (average 2,200 kg/lactation), producing around 396,000 ton of milk annually but had never been considered a documented food item in the grey records of the country. Per head basis camel in the country produces far better than the indigenous cattle/buffalo breeds, Frisian, and their crosses (in true measurement model).

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Conclusion

The time has reached to know and exploit the true potential of native genetic resources like camel and to find the ways to sustain livelihood (in the true sense) of the generations to come. I would appreciate a positive and healthy debate to be initiated regarding the food production in a truly sustainable model under the climate change scenario.

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A Beautiful Camel Heritage is Sinking

The centuries old rich camel heritage of Cholistan with the Marrecha tribe of camels is under threat.

IMG_0537A precious camel heritage of Marrecha in Cholistan desert is at risk. This brief study tells, how this beautiful culture is eroding because of the negligence of the policymakers. It is very crucial to involve the native livestock keepers in policies regarding research and development of the region but unfortunately, it is happening the otherwise. ♠♠♠♥♥

Where is the Cholistan Desert?

Having seen many deserts of the world, I’m quite sure that Cholistan desert is one of the most beautiful and living deserts of the world. No doubt, it is a desert but acts as a food bucket (animal origin) for the country since ages.  The commune of the Cholistan is called Rohila and the tribe rearing camel is called Marrecha. This cherished desert is situated in the South–West of Punjab province (Pakistan) and is spread over an area of 26,000 square kilometers. It is located between latitudes of 27° to 42° and 29°N and longitude of 57° to 60°E. The length of the desert is about 480 Km and breadth is from 32 to 192 Km.

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The map of the Cholistan desert

The Ecosystems and the Camel Adaptation

The Pakistani camel breeds are highly diversified at inter and intra breed basis Rapid change of strategy is necessary for development of dromedary camel pastoralism in the Cholistan desert of Pakistan and found in different ecological zones of the country. Each breed/type has its own uniqueness and usefulness based on the breeding goals of the relevant breeding community. Cholistani pastoralists (Rohila or Marreche) predominantly keep the highly adapted desert camel Marrecha (gets its name from Marrecha tribe). The Marrecha breeders have their own native wisdom and knowledge of conservation and management of animal genetic resources.

The Marrecha Camel

The Marrecha breeders have their own native wisdom and knowledge of conservation and management of animal genetic resources. The Marrecha commune living in the deep desert works as an institution, treasured with precious knowledge of the ecosystems, available natural resources, especially vegetation, biological and natural health, animal breeding and survival and resilience in climate change scenario.

 

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The caravan of Marrecha camels passing by the Killa Dirawar

 

The Marreche Institutions and the Camel Genetic Resources 

The Marreche breeders are color sensitive as in the other parts of the world. They only consider a camel Marrecha if it has coat color from sandy, blackish brown to light brown. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN. The pastoralists have a very clear stance on the breeds and the special traits which they use as their basic breeding goals.DSC04312.JPG

Marrecha herders’ top priority (breeding goal) is to produce pack camels for transportation of goods and families in the desert. They consider the hardiness, intelligence, and obedience as important but special traits for their camels. Along with the special traits, they use phenotypic traits as the markers of the genetic potential and adaptation to the deserted ecosystem.  These animals are lightly built, medium sized with a medium head which is carried on a lean long beautifully curved neck Dancing Marrecha Camel of Cholistan Pakistan.  Some of the phenotypic traits are listed below.DSC04311.JPG

  1. The flat and wide foot pad (walking ability in desert)
  2. The mouth is small with tight lips
  3. prominent round bright eyes, and narrow muzzle
  4. Long eyelashes and long hair on the ears and neck
  5. lean long beautifully curved neck covered with long hair
  6. small ear (Rabbit like) with dense air like brush
  7. The legs are thinner but strong, fine and well shaped
  8. the cylindrical body
  9. Medium head with a protruded nose

Marrecha camel

The Output Potential and the Worth of the Marrecha Camel

  • As a riding/packed Animal: Marrecha camels are fine, fast and gracious looking, so they are called the riding camels.  Marrecha can travel from 100 to 125 Km/ day at a high speed of 20-25 Km per hour. As a pack animal, it can transport 300 to 400 kg weight and can travel up to 50 km/day.
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  • As a Milk Animal: Milk production is the secondary job of the Marrecha camel. Because of its highly adapted nature, it produces milk in harsh conditions with high ambient temperatures and scarcity of feed and water. These characteristics of the Marrecha camel enable camel herders to live and stay deep in the desert and depend on the camel milk for food. The Marrecha pastoralists have an average herd size of 37 camels, majority female (20-25% lactating camels) Marrecha camel of Cholistan Desert. A good Marrecha camel can produce up to 10 milk/day and produces up to 250 days in the ordinary grazing management in the desert. A lactation yield of 1500 kg is expected from an average lactating camel in the desert of Cholistan. 

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The Camel Heritage is sinking here…

The Marrecha pastoralists are facing the burden of constraints with a complex nature. Here the problems are presented in the bullets below.

  • Contrast to other deserts, the Cholistan is squeezing in size and the grazing lands are shrinking
  • The land right/grazing rights are not honored and the land grabbing is mounting with each moment of the time
  • The influentials from other regions and provinces allow the grazing lands of the pastoralists and shoot the camels entering in the allotted lands
  • Unfortunately, Cholistan desert is exactly situated along the world’s complex border between Pakistan and India
  • The movement restriction among the pastoralists on both sides of the border is resulting in the deterioration of the Marrecha breed because of the stipulation of the crossbreeding with other desert types of camels (Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri).
  • The region is one of the hot spots of the climate change which embracing the pastoralists with the complex challenges, especially new and fatal diseases.
  • The policy makers avoid engaging the pastoralists in policies, resulting in the Cholistan into the graveyard of the failed project. 

 

Big claim, I’m one of the best human nutritionists with 45 years experience

I wrote this quote on facebook, (in joke mode) later on, many comments and reactions appeared. The people are really food sensitive. I just share, what the comments say.

When some people just understood that I claim this because of my education, I reply as below.

“it is not about the feed and my qualification. It is about the food we eat. I’m eating😁 since last 45 years so getting the experience. It is not a serious matter. Please do not go this way.”

Another response from Croatia ‘Biljana Radojicic Yes, the food we eat…but I think that is very serious matter…dear colleague Raziq Ark Biodiversity

My reply “Raziq Ark Biodiversity yes, it is a really serious issue…how the big companies and corporations play with our health? They always try to convince people to eat more and more… It is a dilemma. I think we should eat slow food and less food.”

Raziq Ark Biodiversity The human health is under severe threat. See.how the giant corporations play with our health, always convincing people to eat more and more… It is a dilemma. I think we should eat slow food and less food.German toxicologist accuses EU authorities of scientific fraud over glyphosate link with cancer

Look at the role of glyphosate in spreading and seeding the diseases, especially cancer. It is found in Roundup, the popular brand of pesticides of Monsanto,, The Poisonous Fields83321811

Australian friend replied as; “Julia Marie Bell Indeed! I totally agree to Raziq. I would argue that the way to circumnavigate this toxic situation is to ” get your own back garden in order” so to speak and be the change that you want to see. I have chosen, and it has taken a lot of effort, work, and money to become as self-sufficient as possible. I have cut back on consumerism in a big way. I use no roundup on my farm, and all work and weeding are done by hand which is time-consuming and financially draining. However, the joy of being committed to a “good life” and living gently upon the earth( in the true Aristotelian sense) out ways the effort. My daily chant every day is “kindness” in the widest sense of the word. To sentient and nonsentient nature.”raziq

It is a pleasure seeing the interest of people in the nutritional aspects of human beings.

The Climate Change Forced African Pastoralists to Replace Cow with the Camel

Maalem is a camel pastoralist in Kenya and she is thankful for camel as this precious animal ensures livelihood in the climatic calamities of the region.maalem

Bone-dry plains roasted by a relentless equatorial sun. At first glance, there’s little to be found in the fields near Isiolo, a provincial town about five hours’ drive north of the capital, Nairobi. But Mariam Maalim’s camels still manage to find something to eat. They nibble at arid bushes, while the wooden bells around their necks tinkle softly.Kenyans turn to camels to cope with climate change

Camels survive two weeks without water

“My husband and I had a hundred cattle until 2005. But as the climate became drier in this region, the cows stopped producing milk, and twenty to thirty of our cows even died every year,” says 45-year-old Maalim, dressed in a blue hijab. “This made us decide to shift to camels as they survive without water for over two ­weeks. They continue to give milk, and although they become weak and skinny, they won’t die.”

For details please go to the link below;

http://www.dw.com/en/kenyans-turn-to-camels-to-cope-with-climate-change/a-38300987

 

 

The Milking Camels of Australia~World Camel’s Day Gift

The beautiful series of World Camel’s Day (WCD) is continue. The recent updates are received by Hannah Purss from Australia. She is telling about her camel journey and the milking camels of Australia. Here is her article in the ensuing lines.

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The disciplined Camel walking on grass instead of sand

“I was first introduced to camels when I was working in Central Australia, a hot, semi-arid region of the country. As I learnt about the valuable contribution camels made to Australia’s development, and the current wild population in the Australian deserts I realized what a valuable, yet wasted, commodity we have here. Dromedary camels do not roam free in other countries as they do in Australia, we are the only country that is yet to recognize their value. Here in Australia, wild camels are said to be in numbers above 300,000.  Most farmers and landholders that have access to wild camel populations view them as a pest, are uninterested in camels or are unsure of how to work with them.

 In 2014, Evan Casey and I founded Australian Camel Solutions Pty Ltd, a company that is based on solid and progressive camel handling and the development of the camel industry in Australia.

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The safe and friendly transportation of camels

 In Queensland, in Australia’s east, we have co-founded The Australian Wild Camel Corporation Pty Limited, a commercial scale camel dairy company. Being on the east coast of Australia means we can be closely linked with universities, academics and various dairy, camelid and veterinary experts.

We have been in operation for around six months now. We are having the most remarkable experience putting our theories and plans into practice, and as a team we are learning more each day.

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Hannah Caring her camels

Currently we are milking over 50 camels and as we move into Australian calving season, we hope to increase that number rapidly. The training program we use to bring camels from completely wild and out of the desert into our milking herd was developed by our company, Australian Camel Solutions, and is based on body language and the communication methods we’ve picked up from the camels themselves. In our dairy training program, we don’t use ropes or restraints on the animals which has helped us tremendously in the speed we can train them, and in keeping their stress levels down during the process. On farm, we have a vibrant, young team and it is especially exciting for me to see them growing in their camel handling skills and their passion for the industry. At TAWCC, we are passionate about fostering a supportive and progressive camel community.

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The Camel Milk

We have been conducting lots of product development – from fresh milk, to ice cream, yogurt and more. Our milk is currently being used to produce our own brand of camel milk soaps and skincare products. The skincare products are currently available only in selected stores, but very soon we will have them more readily available in Australian stores, online and hopefully around the world.

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The Happy, Healthy, Alert and Beautiful Camels of Australia

A very Happy World Camel Day from Australia!”

Hannah Purss, Australian Camel Solutions PTY LTD

www.camelmilkaus.com

The Best Option for Sustainable Food Production in Challenging Environment ~is the Promising Camel

Happy Camel’s Day (WCD)

Among the camel’s world, the subcontinent is the region where the day starts first. It is 22nd June in the subcontinent, so I can safely say Happy Camel’s Day. At the occasion of WCD, I started the series of articles based on the documents/material sent from different corners of the world. As my own share, I want to express my views on the role of the camel as a farm animal in NENA region.

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Not the ship but the gift of the desert

Near East and North Africa (NENA) is one of the driest and challenging landscapes on the face of the earth. The major percentage of the global deserted lands fall in this region, making it a hostile ecosystem for many other livestock species. Nature blessed the region with the highly adapted and unique livestock species “the Camel”, well said as Ataullah in Arabic.

As mentioned in the holy book Quran “do they do not look at camel; how strange it is created?” the camel is the animal of unique characteristics’ making it the most valuable creature of the drylands. The people living in this region, especially the camel herders and pastoralists depend on the camels for food, accessibility, and other livelihoods. Camel produces milk in very high ambient temperatures and other climatic challenges, in the same environment, other livestock species are hard to survive. Camel is not in competition with any other livestock as camel browse on very woody and bushy vegetation.

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The desert’s friend…

In the climate change scenario and fragile security (in some parts of Iraq, Libya, Yemen, and Syria) camel is the animal of choice to provide precious food items as milk (primary product) and meat to ensure the survival of the people. Camel farming needs very low input making it a sustainable profession.

Based on my experience and scientific findings, I can say that camel is the most sustainable farm animal in the region. The cow model (cow dairies) is not sustainable in such a hostile ecosystem and the milk produced is very expensive if calculated in the ecosystem model as the cow needs many times more water to produce one liter of milk. The camel tolerates very high ambient temperatures, on a contrary, the cow needs a cooling system (using fossil oil) to produce milk in the same situation.

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Camel ensures accessibility in the remote areas

The quality of camel milk is very appreciating than that of cow milk. Free of allergen protein, intolerant lactose and low in the saturated long chain, fats making the camel milk the best choice for health sensitive people. The region needs to ensure joint efforts for making policies regarding the food and agriculture and keep the camel on top priority as an animal of food security in climate change scenario.

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They are not in competition with other livestock species

The organization “Camels4Life” which is an advocacy group supporting camel’s cause,  is always willing to support both governments and NGOs for finding ways to use a camel as a sustainable farm animal contrast to its old vision of beast of the burden.

For more details, please go to the link below.

https://camel4milk.wordpress.com/2015/02/18/camel-a-one-in-all-creature/

http://www.thenational.ae/uae/health/al-ain-doctor-sees-potential-in-camels-beyond-their-milk